Addiction and Recovery Information for Individuals, Families and Health Professionals


Self-Test Questionnaires for Addiction

1) Ewing JA. Detecting alcoholism, the CAGE questionnaire. Journal American Medical Association. 1984 252(14): 1905-1907.

2) Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle JC, Saunders JB, Monteiro MG. AUDIT: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Guidelines for Use in Primary Care. World Health Organization, Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence. WHO/MSD/MSB/01.6a: 1-41.

The Medical Definition of Addiction

1) DSM stands for The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association. ICD stands for The International Classification of Disease, published by the World Health Organization.

2) Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. Journal American Medical Association. 2004 Mar 10;291(10):1238-45.

3) Lowenfels A, and Miller T. Alcohol and Trauma. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1984 13:1056-1060.

4) Smith GS, Branas CC, Miller TR. Fatal nontraffic injuries involving alcohol: A metaanalysis. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1999 Jun;33(6):659-68.

5) Roizen, J. Epidemiological issues in alcohol-related violence. In: Galanter, M., ed. Recent Developments in Alcoholism. Vol. 13. New York: Plenum Press, 1997. pp. 7-40.

The Genetics of Addiction

1) Prescott CA, Kendler KS. Genetic and environmental contributions to alcohol abuse and dependence in a population-based sample of male twins. American Journal Psychiatry. 1999 Jan;156(1):34-40.

2) Enoch MA, Goldman D. The genetics of alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2001 Apr;3(2):144-51.

3) Merikangas KR, Stolar M, Stevens DE, Goulet J, Preisig MA, Fenton B, Zhang H, O'Malley SS, Rounsaville BJ. Familial transmission of substance use disorders. Archives General Psychiatry. 1998 Nov;55(11):973-9.

About Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

1) Dawson DA, Archer LD. Relative frequency of heavy drinking and the risk of alcohol dependence. Addiction. 1993 Nov;88(11):1509-18.

2) MacMahon, S., Alcohol consumption and hypertension. Hypertension, 1987. 9(2): p. 111-21.

3) Puddey, I. B., Beilin, L. J., Vandongen, R., Rouse, I. L., et al., Evidence for a direct effect of alcohol consumption on blood pressure in normotensive men. A randomized controlled trial. Hypertension, 1985. 7(5): p. 707-13.

4) Bagnardi, V., Blangiardo, M., La Vecchia, C., & Corrao, G., Alcohol consumption and the risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. Alcohol Res Health, 2001. 25(4): p. 263-70.

5) Poschl, G., & Seitz, H. K., Alcohol and cancer. Alcohol Alcohol, 2004. 39(3): p. 155-65.

6) Castellsague, X., Munoz, N., De Stefani, E., Victora, C. G., et al., Independent and joint effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on the risk of esophageal cancer in men and women. Int J Cancer, 1999. 82(5): p. 657-64.

7) Schuckit MA, Tipp JE, Bergman M, Reich W, Hesselbrock VM, Smith TL. Comparison of induced and independent major depressive disorders in 2,945 alcoholics. American Journal Psychiatry. 1997 Jul;154(7):948-57.

8) Sampson, P. D., Streissguth, A. P., Bookstein, F. L., Little, R. E., et al., Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and prevalence of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Teratology, 1997. 56(5): p. 317-26.

An Anti-Alcohol Drug (Antabuse)

1) Petrakis I, Ralevski E, Nich C, Levinson C, Carroll K, Poling J, Rounsaville B; and the VA VISN I MIRECC Study Group. Naltrexone and disulfiram in patients with alcohol dependence and current depression. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacol. 2007 Apr;27(2):160-5.

2) Krampe H, Stawicki S, Wagner T, Bartels C, Aust C, Ruther E, Poser W, Ehrenreich H. Follow-up of 180 alcoholic patients for up to 7 years after outpatient treatment: impact of alcohol deterrents on outcome. Alcohol Clinical and Experimental Research. 2006 Jan;30(1):86-95.

3) De Sousa A, De Sousa A. A one-year pragmatic trial of naltrexone vs disulfiram in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 2004 Nov-Dec;39(6):528-31.

4) Niederhofer H, Staffen W. Comparison of disulfiram and placebo in treatment of alcohol dependence of adolescents. Drug Alcohol Review. 2003 Sep;22(3):295-7.

5)Petrakis I, Ralevski E, Nich C, Levinson C, Carroll K, Poling J, Rounsaville B; and the VA VISN I MIRECC Study Group. Naltrexone and disulfiram in patients with alcohol dependence and current depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007 Apr;27(2):160-5.

6) de Sousa A, de Sousa A. An open randomized study comparing disulfiram and acamprosate in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 2005 Nov-Dec;40(6):545-8.

Benzodiazepines, Tranquilizers, and Sleeping Pills

1) Poyares D, Guilleminault C, Ohayon MM, Tufik S. Chronic benzodiazepine usage and withdrawal in insomnia patients. Journal Psychiatric Research. 2004 May-Jun;38(3):327-34.


1) Nocon A, et al., Dependence symptoms in young cannabis users? A prospective epidemiological study. Journal Psychiatric Research. 2006 Aug;40(5):394-403.

1a) Gilman, J. M., Kuster, J. K., Lee, S., Lee, M. J., et al., Cannabis use is quantitatively associated with nucleus accumbens and amygdala abnormalities in young adult recreational users. J Neurosci, 2014. 34(16): p. 5529-38.

1b) Meier, M. H., Caspi, A., Ambler, A., Harrington, H., et al., Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012. 109(40): p. E2657-64.

2) Bovasso GB. Cannabis abuse as a risk factor for depressive symptoms. American Journal Psychiatry. 2001 Dec;158(12):2033-7

3) Patton GC, Coffey C, Carlin JB, Degenhardt L, Lynskey M, Hall W. Cannabis use and mental health in young people: cohort study. British Medical Journal. 2002 Nov 23;325(7374):1195-8.

4) van Os J, Bak M, Hanssen M, Bijl RV, de Graaf R, Verdoux H. Cannabis use and psychosis: a longitudinal population-based study. American Journal Epidemiology. 2002 Aug 15;156(4):319-27.

5) Fiona A Campbell, et al. Are cannabinoids an effective and safe treatment option in the management of pain? A qualitative systematic review. British Medical Journal 2001;323:13 (7 July)


1) Schachne JS, Roberts BH, Thompson PD. Coronary-artery spasm and myocardial infarction associated with cocaine use. New England Journal Medicine. 1984 Jun 21;310(25):1665-6.

Smoking and Nicotine

1) Ward, M. M., Swan, G. E., & Jack, L. M., Self-reported abstinence effects in the first month after smoking cessation. Addict Behav, 2001. 26(3): p. 311-27.

2) Cosgrove, K. P., Batis, J., Bois, F., Maciejewski, P. K., et al., beta2-Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability during acute and prolonged abstinence from tobacco smoking. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2009. 66(6): p. 666-76.

3) Kenford, S. L., Fiore, M. C., Jorenby, D. E., Smith, S. S., et al., Predicting smoking cessation. Who will quit with and without the nicotine patch. JAMA, 1994. 271(8): p. 589-94.

4) Stead, L. F., Perera, R., Bullen, C., Mant, D., et al., Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2012. 11: p. CD000146.

5) Piper, M. E., Smith, S. S., Schlam, T. R., Fiore, M. C., et al., A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2009. 66(11): p. 1253-62.

6) Food and Drug Administration, Nicotine Replacement Therapy Labels May Change. .

7) Society, American Cancer, What are the types of nicotine replacement therapy? .

8) Coleman, T., Chamberlain, C., Davey, M. A., Cooper, S. E., et al., Pharmacological interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2012. 9: p. CD010078.

9) Wu, P., Wilson, K., Dimoulas, P., & Mills, E. J., Effectiveness of smoking cessation therapies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 2006. 6: p. 300.

10) Hughes, J. R., Stead, L. F., Hartmann-Boyce, J., Cahill, K., et al., Antidepressants for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2014. 1: p. CD000031.

11) Loh, W. Y., Piper, M. E., Schlam, T. R., Fiore, M. C., et al., Should all smokers use combination smoking cessation pharmacotherapy? Using novel analytic methods to detect differential treatment effects over 8 weeks of pharmacotherapy. Nicotine Tob Res, 2012. 14(2): p. 131-41.

12) Jorenby, D. E., Leischow, S. J., Nides, M. A., Rennard, S. I., et al., A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med, 1999. 340(9): p. 685-91.

13) Moore, T. J., Furberg, C. D., Glenmullen, J., Maltsberger, J. T., et al., Suicidal behavior and depression in smoking cessation treatments. PLoS One, 2011. 6(11): p. e27016.

14) Drummond, M. B., & Upson, D., Electronic cigarettes. Potential harms and benefits. Ann Am Thorac Soc, 2014. 11(2): p. 236-42.

15) Mokdad, A. H., Marks, J. S., Stroup, D. F., & Gerberding, J. L., Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA, 2004. 291(10): p. 1238-45.

16) World Health Organization, WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic 2013. .

17) CDC, 2014 Surgeon General's Report: The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress. .

18) Environmental Protection Agency, Setting the Record Straight: Secondhand Smoke is a Preventable Health Risk. .

19) CDC, 2006 Surgeon General's Report—The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke. .

Relapse Prevention

1) The stages of relapse were first written about by Terence Gorski. Gorski T and Miller M, Counseling for Relapse Prevention. Herald Publishing. 1982.;  Gorski T and Miller M, Staying Sober: A Guide for Relapse Prevention. Independence Press. 1986.

Recovery Skills and Coping Strategies

1) Benson H, Wallace RK. Decreased Drug Abuse with Transcendental Meditation: A Study of 1862 Subjects, Congressional Record, 92nd Congress, 1st session, June 1971, Serial #92-1.

2) Shafil M, Lavely R, Jaffe R. Meditation and the Prevention of Drug Abuse, American Journal of Psychiatry, 1975 312: 942-945.

3)Vaillant GE. A Long-term Follow-up of Male Alcohol Abuse. Archives General Psychiatry. 1996 53:243-249.


Last Modified: March 15, 2015

A Bibliography of addiction recovery and relapse prevention articles is included. A medical bibliography of Alcoholism drug dependence alcohol addiction substance abuse alcohol dependence drug addiction, Benzodiazepines, marijuana, Cocaine is included. Read references to Relapse Prevention coping skills and addiction and recovery skills and techniques. The content is provided by Dr. Steven M. Melemis addiction medicine specialist.